Solar Extreme Events of 2003:
Fundamental Science and Applied Aspects

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Solar Extreme Events -2003 - some consequences
Panasyuk M.I., Veselovsky I.S., Lazutin L.L.,

This report presents the review of the first results of recently established collaboration of Russian academic and educational institutions which are working in the field of solar-terrestrial science. Experimental material, based both on the ground and satellites data, is presented and discussed about different phenomena observed on the Sun, in the heliosphere and inside the magnetosphere during the period of extremely strong solar activity in October-November, 2003. Possible cause-sequence relations between observed processes are considered based on this information and on the comparison with other similar situations in the past, as well as on the available theoretical arguments. The results demonstrate that physical causes of solar and heliospheric phenomena in October-November, 2003 are not localized only in the active regions and above them on the Sun. The energy reservoirs and driving forces of these processes are distributed more globally. Driving subphotospheric processes could proceed quickly and in a rather unexpected manner which difficult to predict. As usually, sunspots and other tracers (e.g. magnetic fields, motions and different kinds of radiation) can be used as diagnostic tools to follow these abrupt transformations on the Sun. Besides effects of solar storms, radiation storms which reached the extreme value during this time period, both in heliosphere and in magnetosphere are analyzed. For this purpose, satellite's ( Coronas-F, Meteor-3, Express and Russian segment of ISS ) data together with on-ground neutron monitors stations results were used. Effects of magnetic storms caused by coronal mass ejections with strong interplanetary shocks reached the largest value for this solar cycle. They are discussed using both experimental data and modeling results. The main phases of the magnetic storms were accompanied by intense substorm activity and aurora for the first time registered by several optical observatories in subauroral and middle latitudes. Joint ground-based and satellite observations allowed to study in details dynamics of the magnetosphere boundaries, trapping regions and magnetotail. Significant increases of radiation doses onboard piloted ISS caused by these storms are considered in this report as well.

Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 2004