Solar Extreme Events of 2003:
Fundamental Science and Applied Aspects

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The major geomagnetic storm of 29th of October 2003: High latitude observations of the large substorm on October 30
Rosenqvist L., Buchert S., Buchert S., Buchert S.,

The extremely large solar eruption originating from the Sun on the 28th of October last year caused an intense geomagnetic storm at Earth. A second solar eruption on the 29th of October resulted in a re-intensification of the storm about a day later. Within this storm the strongest substorm in the history of the magnetic observatory was observed in northern Sweden. The aim of this study is to investigate the resulting effects on the ionosphere and upper atmosphere, focusing on the northern Scandinavian sector where these disturbances reach extremely high values. A period of high absorption is clearly seen in riometerdata associated with substorm precipitation, which might have caused the black-out seen in the Super-DARN radar network. The large-scale temporal and geographical development of the D-region absorption during this period is quantified. The CLUSTER spacecraft was located in the tail magnetosphere near the flank but crossed the magnetopause and encountered the solar wind several times when the substorm occured in northern Scandinavia. Also, EISCAT data is used to quantify the energy flow resulting from frictional heating and through particle precipitaion in the auroral zone.

Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 2004