Solar Extreme Events of 2003:
Fundamental Science and Applied Aspects

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Emergency conditions at the power line due to the sudden commencement of the 29 October 2003 storm
Sakharov Y.A., Yahnin A.G., Danilin A.N., Barannik M.B.,

An emergency outage of the power substation PS-202 of the 330 kV main feed situated near Olenegorsk, Kola Peninsula, occurred at 06:12:49 UT of 29 October 2003. The outage was caused by the current increase in the dead-earthed neutral of the power transformer. The time of the outage coincides with the moment of the sudden commencement of the great geomagnetic storm. The most probable cause of the emergency might be geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) associated with the development of the SC-related changes of the geomagnetic field. The rate of the magnetic field changes estimated from the data of the IMAGE magnetometer network amounts to 300-1000 nT/min.

Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 2004