Solar Extreme Events of 2003:
Fundamental Science and Applied Aspects

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Change of the atmosphere and ionosphere structure during solar proton events on October 2003.
Osepian A., Shumilov O., Kasatkina E., Belova E., Ekeberg J., Kirkwood S., Nilsson H., Haggstrom ,

It is known that the concentrations of minor neutral constituents such as, nitric oxide,[NO], atomic oxygen [O] and ozone [O3], are altered during solar proton events (SPE). On the basis of an ion-chemical model of the high-latitude lower ionosphere we examine the effect of variable minor constituents on the electron density, positive and negative ion densities, effective electron loss rate and magnitude of comic radio noise absorption during SPE observed on October 2003. The differential energy spectra of incident protons are derived from the solar proton fluxes measured on the board of the satellites GOES-8 and GOES-10 and used to calculate the ionization rates at the altitudes 50- 100 km using an energy deposition model. It is shown that increasing atomic oxygen and decreasing ozone at the altitudes between 60 - 80 km during nighttime leads to increased electron density. At the altitude 75-70 km electron density increases by a factor 5-10. Electron density profiles and cosmic noise absorption calculated on the basis of the theoretical model for different values of the minor neutral constituents are compared with observations by the EISCAT VHF radar and by riometer. The results are discussed.

Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 2004