Solar Extreme Events of 2003:
Fundamental Science and Applied Aspects

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Particle trapping in the outer magnetosphere and its variation associated with nonadiabatic effects
Antonova A.E., Kropotkin A.P.,

Existence of a cusp-associated domain in the magnetosphere with off-equatorial magnetic field minima has long been known. Experiments aboard INTERBALL, POLAR, and CLUSTER SC opened up new opportunities for studying particle populations in those near-magnetopause regions with highly reduced magnetic field. Adiabaticity violation of energetic particle bounce motion in those regions, resulting of nonmonotonic change in magnetic field intensity along field lines, has been examined. The violation takes place at the separatrix dividing a region of transequatorial bounce oscillations from that of oscillations about high-latitude field minima. An invariant "jump" has been evaluated. Diffusion over the second invariant associated with that jump can result in particle phase space redistribution during magnetic storms. Numerical simulations have shown that particle populations in the Earth's magnetosphere are highly influenced by such a non-dipole field behavior exhibiting the predicted by V.P. Shabansky drift shell branching. As a direct consequence of this effect, a doubly-connected body is made up of particle drift shells in the outer magnetosphere as distinct from McIlwain's simply-connected one, typical of the inner magnetosphere. Associated exchange between different particle populations, particle loss and replenishment as well as experimental evidence for particle trapping in polar cusp region are discussed. Particle passage through off-equatorial minimum B traps in its way round the Earth increases considerably its drift period. This effect shows probably up in such fine structures as energy dispersion pattern, associated with substorm injection observed by V.N. Lutsenko in INTERBALL experiment.

Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 2004