Solar Extreme Events of 2003:
Fundamental Science and Applied Aspects

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Cosmic ray variations during two greatest bursts of solar activity in the 23-rd solar cycle.
Belov A.V, Eroshenko E.A., Oleneva V.A., Yanke V.G., Mavromichalaki H., Plainaki Ch., Mariatos G.,

During two extreme bursts of solar activity in March-April 2001 and October-November 2003 ground based neutron monitor network recorded series of outstanding events distinguished by their magnitude and unusual peculiarities. Solar activity flash in the end of March-beginning of April 2001 put the end of "Gnevyshev minimum" (so-called 'Gnevyshev gap') lasted from December 2000 to March 2001. In a few days more than ten active regions appeared to be originated simultaneously on the visible and on the opposite sides of the Sun. The important changes lead to the great activity flash, evident to be started not with the spot generation, but with the large scaled reconstruction of the solar magnetic field. The beginning of this flash turns out to be easier observed at Earth than on the Sun. The series of strong and moderate magnetic storms, and two powerful proton events (with GLEs) were registered during this period. Then, after four months of the quite Sun in 2003, during 10 days the second unexpected burst of activity was observed in October-November. The biggest and most productive in 23-rd solar cycle active region 486 generated significant series of solar flares among of which the flare (X28/3B on 4 November) was the mostly powerful over the history of X-ray solar observations. The fastest (after August 1972) arrival of the interplanetary disturbance from the Sun and the highest solar wind velocity and IMF intensity were recorded during these events. Within one week three ground level enhancements of solar cosmic ray were registered by the neutron monitor network (28, 29 October and 2 November 2003). Maximum proton energy in these events seems to be ranged from 5 to 10 GeV. Joint analysis of the data from ground level (neutron monitors) and satellite measurements allowed an estimation of some characteristics of proton flux. In this work a tentative analysis of the mostly interesting effects in cosmic rays during these two periods is performed by the neutron monitor network and other relevant data.

Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 2004