Solar Extreme Events of 2003:
Fundamental Science and Applied Aspects

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SOLAR EXTREME FLARE EVENTS: HISTORY, ORIGIN, OCCURRENCE
Ishkov V.N.,

The occurrence of extreme solar flare event in declining (more often) and in growing phases of the 11-year solar cycle likewise appears to be a usual rather than an unusual aspect of solar flare observations. The first known instances of these flare events associated with ? Space Weather??s?+ effects and occurred on Sept. 1, 1853. In cycle 17 possible similar flare event occurred on the end of Feb. C beginning of March 1942, during the transit of an important center activity at ~ 4.8 year after maximum. In cycle 18 C Nov., 1949 (~ 2.3 y.); in cycle 19 C November, 1960 (~ 2.7 y.) and may be July, 1961 (~3.3 y.); in cycle 20 C August, 1972 (~3.7 y.); in cycle 21 C June, July, December, 1982 (~3 y.) and the end of April, 1984 (~4.8 y.), in cycle 22 C March, 1989 (~ max.), June 1991 (~2.5 y). For 8 years of development of the current solar cycle it is registered only four flares with a x-ray importance X?10 (for example, for interval 1 C 15 June, 1991 only, its was 5) and three of them were the main one during the concerned of flare activity period 19.10 C 04.11.2003 (~ 3.5 y.). The question of definition solar extreme flare events and their attitude to severe disturbed of space weather condition and super events in solar cosmic rays C to the periods of long increase of a level high-energy solar protons in a heliosphere is discussed. The comparative analysis of features of active areas - generators powerful flare events and flashes is lead. The opportunity of forecasting extreme flare events as result of interaction of new emerging magnetic fluxes and with already existing magnetic structures is considered.





Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, 2004